In 1979, the Belmont Report was issued by the National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The principles of this report are as follows:

  1. Respect for Persons: This principle acknowledges the dignity and freedom of every person. It requires obtaining informed consent from research subjects (or their legally authorized representatives).
  2. Beneficence: This principle requires that researchers maximize benefits and minimize harms associated with research. Research related risks must be reasonable in light of the expected benefits.
  3. Justice: This principle requires equitable selection and recruitment and fair treatment of research subjects.