Cleaning Validation Methods

Cleaning can be defined as the removal of residues from previous batch, other residues, and traces of cleaning agents. There are several mechanisms associated with cleaning of equipment. The mechanisms involved can be mechanical action, chemical action between the residues and the cleaning agent.

The selection of cleaning agent and mechanism involved in cleaning is largely dependant on the process residue to be cleaned.

Cleaning Mechanisms

The cleaning mechanism totally depends on the selection of cleaning agent and type of residue to be cleaned. Following can be the one of the methods involved in cleaning of residues,

  • Dissolution
  • Saphonification
  • Wetting
  • Emulsifying

Dissolution

Dissolution is the process by which a solid or liquid forms a homogeneous mixture with a solvent or solution. This can be explained as a breakdown of the crystals into individual ions, atoms or molecules and their transport into the solvent

The mechanism involved in this type of cleaning is solubility of the residue in the cleaning agent or solvent. The monobasic buffers i.e. sodium chloride are soluble in cool and hot WFI.

Ethylene glycol butyl ether is soluble in water as well as oil is also used in solubilizing agent. Chelating agents and builders are added to the formula to keep water hardness from interfering with the cleaning process.
Rate of dissolution is depend on,

  • Nature of solvent or residue to be dissolved
  • Temperature of solvent
  • Presence of mixing
  • Area of contact
  • Presence of inhibitors

Saphonification

Saponification can be defined as “hydration reaction where free hydroxide breaks the ester bonds between the fatty acids and glycerol of a tri-glyceride, resulting in free fatty acids and glycerol”, which are each soluble in aqueous solutions.

This process specifically involves the chemical degradation of lipids, which are not freely soluble in aqueous solutions. Heat treated lipid residues are difficult to remove than non-heat residues due to polymerization.

Saphonification plays a critical role in cleaning lipids which are present in the areas of process involving cell growth and cell processing i.e. Bacterial fermentation, Cell disruption process

Wetting

Wetting can be defined as a process “involves the lowering of the surface tension of the cleaning solution, thus allowing it to better penetrate residues that are adhered to equipment and piping surfaces”. Wetting agents, or surfactants, are often used in relatively small amounts and they can substantially reduce the quantities of cleaning agent (in this case, alkali) required for residue removal.

Advantages of Wetting

  • Lowers the surface tension of the cleaning solution
  • Allow better penetrate residues which are adhered to equipment
  • Used in small amount
  • Sticky residues which are hydrophobic in nature get easily removed

Water acts as a solvent that breaks up soil particles after the surfactants reduce the surface tension and allow the water to penetrate soil (water is commonly referred to as “the universal solvent”).

Emulsifying

Emulsifying and suspending agents are often used to keep residues from precipitating by providing “hydrophobic groups” onto which hydrophobic areas of residues can associate, thus preventing them from associating with other residues and forming larger particles which are likely to leave solution.

These agents also typically have “hydrophilic groups” which keep them very soluble in aqueous solutions of moderate to high ionic concentrations. Emulsifiers increase the capacity of a cleaner to emulsify non-soluble compounds in the cleaner. i.e. anionic soap surfactants, cationic surfactants, neutral surfactants

Advantages of Emulsifying agents,

  • Prevent association of residues
  • Allow the residue to precipitate and not allow thdse residue to redeposit on surface

Learn more about Cleaning Validation

If you would like to learn more about Cleaning Validation click here to enter our cleaning validation forum.

What do you think about this article? Have your say by leaving your comments below.

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  • g srinivasarao

    plz update the knowldge.

  • g srinivasarao

    plz update the knowldge.

  • hi

    i had query related area calculation for the cleaning validation, how we have calculate and how we have determine the area and acceptance limit.

  • hi

    i had query related area calculation for the cleaning validation, how we have calculate and how we have determine the area and acceptance limit.

  • kamlesh gupta

    how we will decided the cleaning validation if the least soluble product coming continues four times.

  • kamlesh gupta

    how we will decided the cleaning validation if the least soluble product coming continues four times.

  • kamlesh gupta

    how we will decides sampling quantity of granules and sterile samples during the process validation

  • kamlesh gupta

    how we will decides sampling quantity of granules and sterile samples during the process validation

  • Good Knowledge.

  • Good Knowledge.

  • ananda tarate

    can we use sodium lauryl sulphate as a cleaning agent ?if yes,how the process takes place ?

  • ananda tarate

    can we use sodium lauryl sulphate as a cleaning agent ?if yes,how the process takes place ?

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The Difference Between Qualification and Validation [Video]

There is a general saying within the life sciences:

“We qualify a system and/or equipment and validate a process”

A system and/or equipment must be qualified to operate in a validated process.

For example:

“You qualify an autoclave, whereas you validate a sterilization process”

Manufacturers should identify what validation and qualification work is done. All systems, equipment, processes, procedures should be reviewed and the manufacturer should decide what qualification and validation work needs to be performed.

Direct, Indirect or No Impact

All facility areas, utilities and process equipment must be assessed and classified as direct impact, indirect impact or no impact following an analysis of their impact on the identity, strength, quality, purity or safety of products manufactured at the facility and also the safety of the operators & environment.

Impact on Quality

Each system or item of equipment having direct or indirect impact on the product quality must be validated. The extent of validation or qualification should be determined by performing the risk assessment of that particular system or equipment.

Join the Discussion

Use our community to find our more about validation and qualification.
http://community.learnaboutgmp.com/t/qualification-vs-validation/874

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The Difference Between Prospective, Concurrent and Retrospective Validation

Unless you’re starting a new company you will need to plan on a variety of approaches.

Prospective validation occurs before the system is used in production, concurrent validation occurs simultaneously with production, and retrospective validation occurs after production use has occurred.

In this article we will discuss all three and also discuss the role the master validation plan (MVP) performs for each one.

1. Prospective Validation

Prospective validation is establishing documented evidence, prior to process implementation, that a system performs as is intended, based on pre-planned protocols.

This is the preferred approach.

Production is not started until all validation activities are completed.

The MVP need not go into much detail about this approach since it’s the standard method, however, prospective validation follows a step wise process illustrated here.

The process commences with the development of a Validation Plan and then passes through the DQ, RA, IQ, OQ and PQ phases after which process, computer, analytical and cleaning validations are performed which are followed by a final report.

After which the instrument or equipment will be subject to preventative maintenance and requalification on a routine basis.

Periodic Basis

On a periodic basis all instrumentation and equipment should be reviewed. This review is intended to identify any gaps which may have developed between the time it was last qualified and current requirements.

If any gaps are identified a remediation plan will be developed and the process will start again.

The MVP

The MVP may need to describe what is done with product produced during prospective validation. Typically, it is either scrapped or marked not for use or sale.

The product may be suitable for additional engineering testing or demonstrations, but appropriate efforts need to be made to ensure this product does not enter the supply chain.

Ideally, all validation is done prospectively; i.e., the system is validated before use. However, there are cases and conditions which may prevent this.

2. Concurrent Validation

Concurrent validation is used to establish documented evidence that a facility and process will perform as they are intended, based on information generated during actual use of the process.

In exceptional circumstances (for example, in a case of immediate and urgent public health need) validation may need to be conducted in parallel with routine production. The MVP needs to define how product is managed throughout the process.

Typically, the product batches are quarantined until they can be demonstrated (QC analysis) to meet specifications.

The Right Decision?

The decision to perform concurrent validation should not be made in a vacuum. All stakeholders including management, Quality Assurance and the government regulatory agencies should all agree that concurrent validation is an acceptable approach for the system under consideration.

As always the principal requirement is patient safety is not compromised. The rationale to conduct concurrent validation should be documented along with the agreement to do so by all the stakeholders. This can be part of the Validation Plan or documented as a deviation.

The Process

The concurrent validation process is identical to that of prospective validation. The process starts with the development of a Validation Plan, followed by the DQ, RA, IQ, OQ and PQ phases after which process, computer, analytical and cleaning validations are performed, ending with a final report.

Again, routine preventative maintenance, requalification and periodic review are performed.

3. Retrospective Validation

Retrospective validation is validating a system that has been operating for some time. There are various schools of thought on how to approach retrospective validation. Some may feel that a full-blown validation is required to assure the system is functioning properly.

Others may feel that since the system has been in use, presumably without issues, validation is not necessary and a memo to file justifying why validation is not necessary may be issued.

Doing a full validation may not be required, since you already have proof that the system functions as required – at least in the situations in which production was conducted. Doing nothing, though, is a risk.

It’s likely that the controls haven’t been challenged so there may be some hidden flaws that haven’t been identified that could lead to non-conforming product, hazardous operating conditions, extended delays, etc.

Historical Data

Historical data can certainly be used to support validation. For example, if there is detailed and statistically-significant evidence that production runs are well controlled you could rationalize and justify not doing full validation.

During retrospective validation, it’s advisable that existing product be quarantined, and production put on hold until validation is complete.

As an exception, producing product as part of the validation exercise would follow concurrent validation. This may not be practical since product may have already been distributed, but caution is advised for the reasons outlined.

General Process

The general process for retrospective validation follows the same process as for prospective and concurrent validation except DQ is seldom performed, as the system has already been in use for some time.

Instead a survey and review of available information is performed. This normally occurs before the validation plan is created.

The MVP should also provide guidance on managing inventory during retrospective validation.

One Major Issue

One potential major problem that can occur with retrospective validation the determination of what action should be taken if an issue is found with the system during retrospective validation?

As with everything else, a risk-based decision is warranted. This could be anything from product recall, to customer notifications, to just documenting the justification of the decision why nothing was done.

Again, the MVP should provide guidance on dealing with situations concerning out of specification conditions revealed during retrospective validation, which should also definitely include involving regulatory support.

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